This cartridge is one of the oldest service cartridges still in military use in the world. Originally adopted by Russian army in 1891, along with bolt-action magazine fed rifle, it still remains in use after almost 120 years of continuous service. Over the time, it was chambered in a number of bolt-action and semi-automatic military rifles, several machine guns, and some civilian-type rifles (mostly hunting ones). Today this cartridge is still widely used by Russian military in machine guns and sniper rifles, and it is quite popular for hunting. Many types of military- and civilian-grade loadings are still produced in this chambering worldwide.
Designation Bullet weight, g Muzzle velocity, m/s Muzzle energy, J Comments
M1891 13.7 610 2550 with round-nose FMJ bullet
L 9.7 860 3587 with pointed FMJ bullet (M1930 light ball)
D 11.9 795 3760 with pointed boat-tailed FMJ bullet (heavy ball)
B30 11 815 3650 with armor piercing bullet
7N1 9.56 820 3214 with pointed boat-tailed FMJ bullet, for sniper rifles

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